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- Session Initiation Protocol (SIP) - Signalling Protocol for Internet Telephony
What is Voice Over Internet Protocol (VoIP)? What is Session Initiation Protocol (SIP)? The Session Initiation Protocol (SIP) is one of the main protocols in VoIP technology. in combination with other application layer protocols. A protocol defines the syntax and semantics of communication.
- Evolution of Emergency Call Handling Protocols
Table of Content What is Emergency Calling? How Does 911 Work? Evolution of Emergency Calling Patent Analysis The Future of Emergency Calling Systems Conclusion What is Emergency Calling? An emergency is any situation that requires immediate assistance from the police, fire department, or ambulance. Examples include a fire, a crime, a car crash, especially if someone is injured, or a medical emergency, especially for symptoms that require immediate medical attention. Most Public Switched Telephone Networks (PSTN) have a single emergency telephone number (sometimes known as the universal emergency telephone number or the emergency services number) that allows a caller to contact local emergency services for assistance. The emergency number differs from country to country; it is typically a three-digit number so that it can be easily remembered and dialed quickly. The emergency telephone number for the United States is 9-1-1. Dialing "9-1-1" from any telephone will link the caller to an emergency dispatch office—called a Public Safety Answering Point (PSAP) by the telecommunications industry—which can send emergency responders to the caller's location in an emergency. In approximately 96 percent of the United States, the enhanced 9-1-1 system automatically pairs caller numbers with a physical address. How Does 911 Work? You dial 9-1-1. Your phone company recognizes the number and routes the call to a dedicated 9-1-1 switch that sends the call to the designated PSAP for your area. The PSAP call-taker (also called an operator or dispatcher) asks what the emergency is, the location, and a call-back phone number. (The PSAP can trace the call and get the information, but that takes longer than you'd think -- in the area of 10 minutes, in some cases -- because it's not built into the basic 9-1-1 system.) The call-taker does not have your number or location information on the screen. They need you to provide it. Depending on the emergency, the call-taker uses dispatch to alert police, fire, and/or EMS to go to the scene. Evolution of Emergency Calling (from 911 to E-911 and then to NG-911) The first city in North America to use a central emergency number was the Canadian city of Winnipeg which initially used 999 as the emergency number but switched numbers when the United States proposed 9-1-1. When the 911 system was initially implemented, no one had mobile phones in their pockets, let alone VoIP systems. Phones were tied to landlines, meaning the address associated with each line was definitely the location of the call. Local carriers kept a database of linked phone numbers and physical addresses, which all local Public Safety Access Points (PSAP) could access. When someone called 911 from a landline, the dispatcher saw their phone number and associated address, and that’s how they knew exactly where to send emergency responders. The invention and subsequent surge in popularity of mobile phones threw a wrench into this system. Sure, mobile phones have a billing address associated with the phone number, but the point of a mobile phone is that it can be transported anywhere. That’s when Enhanced-911 or E-911 came into the picture. E-911 is a system used in North America to provide the caller's location to 911 dispatchers automatically. NG911 modernizes 911 infrastructure to accommodate how people communicate today—primarily through mobile and digital devices. NG911 is a new technology that allows the public to share richer, more detailed data—such as videos, images, and texts—with 911 call centers. It also enhances the ability of 911 call centers to communicate with each other and improves system resiliency. NG911 allows the public to send digital data to 911 call centers public safety answering points (PSAPs) and lets the PSAPs receive data from other transmitting devices such as wearable medical devices, car computers, and building alarms. NG911 enables faster network communication and call load sharing between PSAPs. When the PSAP becomes overwhelmed by calls—NG911 allows for calls to be automatically transferred and processed by another available 911 call center in mass casualty incidents or natural disasters. Patent Analysis Out of the total number of patents (2,275) 116 are declared as standard essential patents (SEPs). It is also interesting to note that the 66% of all the patents are owned by the top 10 players in the industry. We can see an overall declining trend in the following graph. As evident, the year 2002 recorded 83 patents in the domain of emergency calls. The number rose to 230 in 2003 followed by 216 in 2004. 2005 saw 237 patents applications, after which the numbers fell substantially. 2006 saw a massive drop with 138 applications while the numbers increased to 149 in the following year. 63 applications were seen in 2019while 2020, and 2021 saw 31 and 24, respectively. The USPTO recorded 759 patent applications, the highest compared to other patent offices. The European Patent office and Canada followed it with 322 and 306 applications, respectively. Germany, Great Britain, France, and China recorded 252, 201, 194 and 172 patent applications, respectively. Hong Kong recorded 140 applications while India saw about 138. Research in Motion was the leader with 714 patents to its credit. Blackberry followed it with 538 patents. Qualcomm and Corydoras Technologies ranked third and fourth with 69 and 55 patents in their portfolio. Ericsson had 33 patents registered under its name while Microsoft Technology Licensing has 26. The Future of Emergency Communication Systems Incorporation of AI Artificial Intelligence (AI) can help forecast, evaluate, and simulate crises in emergency management to reduce response times and expedite resource dispatch processes. For example, the Association of Public-Safety Communications Officials (APCO) and IBM Watson recently joined to employ speech-to-text analytics software to enable agency leaders better evaluate conversations and compare them to pre-scripted content in real-time during 911 call review. As a result, directors can learn from real-time talks between callers and dispatchers and enhance training materials to help 911 personnel perform better. IoT Hurricanes and floods, for example, can occasionally hinder emergency response teams from accessing particular locations. The capacity of teams to track damage, notify the public with up-to-date information, and respond in a timely manner is hampered by this blockage. If IoT devices were present in these regions, however, they would be able to broadcast signals and relay important data more easily, such as temperature, water quality, and smoke. With this information, the government can make better decisions about how to deploy resources during a disaster. Sensors are now used by the Rio de Janeiro City Hall Operations Center to collect real-time data about the city's weather, traffic, police, and medical services. Cloud-Based Calling Cloud-based call-handling solutions are the future of emergency response because they offer a creative and efficient way to handle calls. Blockchain The benefit of blockchain in emergency management is that it provides interoperability and transparency. In terms of interoperability, blockchain can be adopted as a universal system across organizations—similar to the internet—and allow multiple parties across that system to coordinate resources in an emergency. Regarding transparency in the disaster relief scenario, blockchain could provide an immutable record, accessible by everyone, to illustrate what resources have been dedicated to an area and by whom. Conclusion Emergency call centers must use modern technologies in order to provide the best service and protection to the general population. Communication in emergency services calls has relied on the caller's capacity to deliver information orally for the majority of its history. This will change in the age of ubiquitous video calling and cloud calling. Further, scaling such AI, blockchain or IoT-based solutions throughout a city for emergency management is still hampered by cost, security, and interoperability issues. However, the ability to communicate data in an emergency case makes these obstacles worthwhile to overcome. References https://www.911.gov/needtocallortext911.html https://www.nena.org/?page=911overviewfacts https://www.winnipeg.ca/police/History/history5.stm https://www.onsip.com/voip-resources/voip-fundamentals/what-is-enhanced-911-e911# https://www.911.gov/project_ng911publicsafety/ems/understandingng911.html https://people.howstuffworks.com/9-1-1.htm https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Enhanced_9-1-1 https://www.microsoft.com/en-us/research/blog/insights-future-video-calling-emergency-situations/ https://nga911.com/news/post/cloud-based-call-handling-systems-future-emergency-response https://www.intrado.com/en/blog/life-safety/exploring-potential-non-voice-emergency-services# https://datasmart.ash.harvard.edu/news/article/three-emerging-technologies-improve-emergency-management
- Decoding HLS (HTTP Live Streaming) Standard!
There are live streaming protocols like: - Real-Time Messaging Protocol (RTMP) Real-Time Streaming Protocol The HLS protocol was launched by Apple Inc in 2009. Since then, it has become the most widely used streaming protocol. is secured by network security protocols (such as TLS, SSL etc.) It’s a powerful adaptive bitrate protocol.
- Remote Vehicle Diagnostics (RVD)
Protocols used for RVD On-Board Diagnostics (OBD) Protocol- The On-Board Diagnostics (OBD) protocol, Unified Diagnostics Service (UDS) Protocol- UDS is an international standard that specifies how ISO 14229 DoIP Protocol- DoIP stands for Diagnostics over Internet Protocol, allowing you to use UDS over TCP/IP Diagnostic over IP Architecture (DoIP) – Widely Used Protocol The communication scenario between the It saves time and money by not having to install the DoIP protocol stack in each car independently.
- Network Packet Sniffing Tools – A Complete Guide
Depending on the network protocol, these packets have different formats. Control Protocol/Internet Protocol (TCP/IP). In contrast, in protocols like User Datagram Protocol (UDP), the sender keeps sending the packet until The 'Protocol' column contains information about the network protocol utilised for communication. For example, in 39th packet, Address Resolution Protocol (ARP) protocol is mentioned which is used to
- Evolution of Bluetooth
Baseband - It is a protocol that uses the radio protocol's services. and Adaptation Protocol. Middleware Layer - This comprises the RFComm protocol, accepted protocols, SDP, and AT commands, among Protocol (PPP), Internet Protocol (IP), User Datagram Protocol (UDP), Transmission Control Protocol (TCP), and Wireless Application Protocol are some of the most widely utilised Bluetooth protocols (WAP
- Augmented Reality (AR) Headsets: Changing the Way We See and Interact with the World
Communication Protocols Used in AR (Augmented Reality) Headsets Communication protocols used in AR (Augmented Wireless Display (e.g., Miracast): This protocol allows wireless screen mirroring from the AR headset Voice Over IP (VoIP) Protocols: AR headsets may use VoIP protocols for voice and video calls. These protocols enable real-time communication, making AR headsets suitable for teleconferencing and The specific communication protocols an AR headset employs can vary depending on its use case, intended
- LoRaWAN –The Future of IoT (Internet of Things)
A protocol was needed that suits low-power, long-range, bi-directional communication devices. The LoRaWAN is a Low Power, Wide Area Networking protocol for wirelessly connecting battery-powered ' LoRaWAN is an open protocol provided by the LoRa alliance that uses an unlicensed spectrum to enable nearly anybody to build up their own networks at a minimal cost whereas NB-IoT is a licensed protocol In countries where governments actively support the deployment of new innovative connectivity protocols
- Decoding Privacy/Security of Social Media Applications
WhatsApp uses the Signal protocol (formerly known as the TextSecure Protocol) for encryption, which uses The protocol was developed by Open Whisper Systems in 2013 and was first introduced in the open-source The protocol combines the Double Ratchet algorithm, prekeys, and a triple Elliptic-curve Diffie–Hellman The Signal protocol uses a ratchet system that changes the key after every message. Telegram uses MTProto protocol for encryption of messages in Secret Chats.
- Standardization of NFTs (Non-Fungible Tokens)
NFTs are one of the objects generated on the Ethereum platform that follow the protocol defined by a The first blockchain protocol to design and launch NFTs was Ethereum. Nevertheless, improvements that don't necessarily affect the consensus protocol are also included. Social: This section contains enhancements related to devp2p (EIP-8) and the network protocol, such as those suggested to the specifications of the Ethereum swarm and the gossip protocol.
- Neuralink: Revolutionizing the Future of Brain-Computer Interfaces
Developing wireless communication protocols that ensure reliable and low-latency data transmission while technologies requires interdisciplinary collaboration and the development of standardized interfaces and protocols Rigorous testing, validation, and quality assurance protocols are employed to identify and mitigate potential Unintended Consequences and Long-Term Risks: Despite rigorous testing and safety protocols, there is
- Understanding Miracast as a Wireless Display Technology
Miracast is a standard for wireless connections which defines a protocol to connect external monitors IEEE 802.11 is part of the IEEE 802 set of LAN protocols, and specifies the set of media access control (MAC) and physical layer (PHY) protocols for implementing wireless local area network (WLAN) Wi-Fi computer Miracast functions exclusively as a “screen mirroring” protocol. Unlike AirPlay and Chromecast, it lacks smart protocols which could help in better viewing experience