Remote Vehicle Systems are connected to automobiles based on the requirements to communicate in-vehicle sensor and diagnostic information such as sensor data, freeze frame data, diagnostic issue code data, and so on. A remote car diagnostic system is a hardware and software combination that connects a vehicle to a cellular network to obtain diagnostic data for further analysis.
As today's automobiles improve, they grow increasingly reliant on the technological and software information built within them. As this quantum rises, the vehicle becomes more complex, making it more difficult to effectively diagnose, troubleshoot, and repair it. Today's dealership service technicians, who have access to traditional service tools, are hampered by the fact that they must be close to the car in order to diagnose and resolve the problem's fundamental cause. As a result, service turnaround time, repair costs, and, more importantly, customer happiness all increase. This article discusses one of the most modern ways of vehicle diagnostics, is Remote Vehicle Diagnostic, as well as the requirement for service technicians to be equipped with Next-Generation Diagnostic instruments in order to provide a level playing field.
What is Remote Vehicle Diagnostic?
The term "remote vehicle diagnostic" refers to a system that remotely identifies and controls car faults. The remote Vehicle Diagnostic system is designed to provide independent vehicle diagnostics. Without being physically present on-site, a specialist can gain insight into the vehicle's status and locate the problem using remote car diagnostics. This system is built on a Telemetric Framework that employs an onboard microcomputer system known as the On-Board Smart Box (OBSB), GPRS, and a Remote Server for Remote Vehicle Diagnostics and Geographic Position Monitoring. It has real-time monitoring, problem diagnostics, and alarming capabilities. It receives data from the car via the CAN bus and transmits it. This system sends in-vehicle sensor and diagnostic data to the remote computer by use of which one can diagnose the vehicle remotely.
How does the Remote Vehicle Diagnostic System (RVD) work?
Remote Vehicle Systems are connected to automobiles based on the requirements to communicate in-vehicle sensor and diagnostic information such as sensor data, freeze frame data, diagnostic issue code data, and so on. A remote car diagnostic system is a hardware and software combination that connects a vehicle to a cellular network to obtain diagnostic data for further analysis. This data is used to keep the vehicle in good working order.
The ignition system, fuel system, exhaust system, and cooling system are all examined during the data generation process. ECU is a microprocessor made up of a variety of electronic components and circuits, including many semiconductor devices, that collect data from all of the vehicle's sensors. Its processing unit compares data from the input to data stored in memory. Through the injector, idle speed, ignition timing, and fuel pump, the ECU regulates the pulse rate in the fuel system. On-Board Diagnostic (OBD)2 scanning tools communicate with the ECU to download on-board fault codes and determine which sensor isn't working (ECU). Then there's the CAN (Controller Area Network) serial bus communication protocol, which provides a standard for reliable and effective communication between devices.
The initial phase in the data processing layer is feature selection, in which the DTC data stream is filtered using expert suggestions in the feature selection process. The data collected is then subjected to a PCA (Principal Component Analysis) for feature reduction. Next, the classification phase employs four classification algorithms: Decision Tree, Random Forest, KNN, and SVM. Interestingly combinations of DTC or relationships are discovered on the server end, and further processing is performed. These results are saved on the server for further analysis and utilized for defect prediction and remote vehicle monitoring.
The remote monitoring feature allows you to keep an eye on the vehicle's present state, such as its fuel level, speed, and location. When any subsystem of the vehicle fails, an automatic notification is sent to the vehicle's responsible person.
Protocols used for RVD
On-Board Diagnostics (OBD) Protocol- The On-Board Diagnostics (OBD) protocol, based on ISO 15031 standards, is used to read data sent to and from a vehicle's electrical systems or subsystems. Sending queries to the ECU and receiving responses is how OBD communication works.
Unified Diagnostics Service (UDS) Protocol- UDS is an international standard that specifies how ISO 14229 services via CAN should be implemented. The network in a diagnostic session consists of the tester (Client) and the ECU being tested (Server). The client sends a diagnostic service request to the server. The client submits a service request, and the ECU always responds with a positive, negative, or no response. A client-server architecture is used to communicate between the tester and the ECU. A diagnostic request is sent by the tester, which can be passed to one or more target ECUs. The ECU sends an affirmative or negative acknowledgment in response to this request.
DoIP Protocol- DoIP stands for Diagnostics over Internet Protocol, allowing you to use UDS over TCP/IP on an Ethernet network to access automotive diagnostic services. DoIP enables substantially quicker data transfer rates at a minimal hardware cost compared to traditional CAN-based diagnostics. DoIP is therefore appealing to today's automakers.
Diagnostic over IP Architecture (DoIP) – Widely Used Protocol
The communication scenario between the car and the external testing equipment is known as DoIP security. When communication takes place across insecure external networks, such as repair garage networks, the security risk multiplies.
1st Scenario- Physical Connection between vehicle and diagnostic tester: This is the safest way to use diagnostics over a physical ethernet connection. There is absolutely no danger of eavesdropping or an external security threat because the tester tool is directly attached to the car ECU. However, with such a direct arrangement, remote vehicle diagnostics are not possible; this scenario is not relevant for us in the context of DoIP.
2nd Scenario- Connection between vehicle and tester over a network: A vehicle is connected to a testing device through TCP/IP in this instance. A hacker might utilise this attack vector to obtain access to any of the automobiles linked to the repair garage's network if the network is insecure. Measures must be put in place to allow the tester to identify the correct car, as well as the vehicle's ability to reject numerous connection attempts.
3rd Scenario- Connection between multiple vehicles and a tester tool: This is a little more complicated scenario where one tester tool caters to several vehicles using a socket connection. However, each vehicle must be taken only by one connection. A hacker can take advantage of such a situation and control multiple vehicles by bouncing off the connection. DoIP protocol can be equipped with encryption algorithms to ward off such threats.
4th Scenario- Connection between one vehicle and multiple test devices or many test applications on a single tool: This is a sophisticated configuration in which a car can accept diagnostic requests from many tester devices or test applications on a single device. In such a circumstance, the attacker's chances of interfering with the operation of several diagnostics’ equipment increase.
How Does DoIP enable Remote Vehicle Diagnostics?
All ECUs connected to DoIP getaway have remote car diagnostics capability. It saves time and money by not having to install the DoIP protocol stack in each car independently. A diagnostic tester tool is employed, which makes diagnostic requests over the ethernet to the car and receives a diagnostic answer. CAN buses, the traditional automotive network backbone, are projected to be replaced in the near future by Ethernet.
Startups Providing RVD solutions
Samsara – Predictive Maintenance (USA)
Fleet managers require technologies that deliver maintenance advice on time. IoT sensors provide system data to detect malfunctions and protect vehicle health before they happen. Fleet controllers can arrange timely services and enhance fleet performance with real-time vehicle diagnostics.
Samsara is a cloud-based software and hardware company based in the United States that helps businesses manage their fleets. The company's cloud platform provides insights from sensor data and assists in diagnosing vehicle performance for predictive maintenance. This allows fleet managers to cut downtime expenses by minimizing vehicle breakdowns. Furthermore, this aids in improving a vehicle's performance and extending its lifespan.
WorkM8 is a tool that allows you to diagnose your engine remotely. It keeps track of RPM, coolant temperature, ambient and environmental temperatures, and fuel levels. The platform is device and hardware neutral, allowing for remote diagnosis of any vehicle.
Vehicle telematics for remote diagnostics is provided by a Malaysian startup. A smartphone app, IoT gateways, sensors, and cloud-based data analytics are all part of the startup's diagnostic solution. It provides an analysis of driving behavior as well as vehicle preventative maintenance. The IoT gateway includes real-time tracking and an accelerometer for reliable impact and shock analysis.
Akkurate is a company that specializes in electric vehicle battery monitoring. It keeps track of the battery's present state of degradation and value, allowing us to estimate the fleet's remaining battery life and optimise fleet operations.
Gauss Moto (USA)
Gauss Moto, a startup based in the United States, provides onboard automobile gateways. It translates diagnostic protocols and routes diagnostic information between external diagnostic instruments and engine control units (ECU). It also supports diagnostic measures and handles the states and configuration of the network and ECUs connected to the network. It enables drivers to respond to the state and circumstances of their cars in a proactive manner.
Future and Conclusion
Remote Vehicle Diagnostics (RVD) is edging closer to being an unavoidable next stage in the automotive industry's technical evolution, with the promise of lower costs. Between 2022 and 2028, the automotive remote diagnostics market is expected to grow at an 18.9% CAGR, a significant increase above the 17.1% CAGR achieved from 2013 to 2021. Approximately 24,372,388 commercial vehicles were sold between 2020 and 2021, according to an international organization of motor vehicle manufacturers. This number is likely to increase exponentially in the future, resulting in an increased need for Remote Vehicle Diagnostics systems. Other technical breakthroughs, such as the Internet of Things (IoT), will contribute to the expansion of diagnostic systems.
From an information technology standpoint, broad identification through IP address makes sense if the vehicle considers the presence and functionality of a server. In test modules and test methods, standardization will be more advanced. On PCs and Web Browsers, clear text error warnings will also be available. Automotive companies like Porsche, and Jaguar use augmented reality to help automotive technicians accomplish complex maintenance and repair tasks more quickly. With the evolution of augmented reality, one can contact employees at remote technical support services. Commonly referred to as the “see-what-I-see” remote collaboration, this solution is the new preferred way to have specialized expertise on-site anytime, anywhere. Thanks to its real-time two-way audio and video capabilities, which allow annotations to be made and remain stable on the shared scene, the costly expenses of moving skilled workers from site to site are being drastically reduced.