• Jagjeet

WiMax - Enabling Ubiquitous High-Speed Data Services

In 2009, Wireless Gigabit Alliance announced its intentions to create a new high-speed wireless standard called WiGig that marked a new chapter in the history of wireless communication technologies. In similar efforts, WiMAX was introduced through which mobile operators can augment their service with high bandwidth when needed by integrating WiMAX into their networks. The same apps (messaging, agenda, location-based services) can be offered on both networks with a single pricing and customer profile. To make WiMAX deployment easier, mobile operators can utilize existing radio sites and backhauling equipment. To supplement their DSL and Wi-Fi bundle, fixed operators, incumbent or alternate, will offer nomadic and portable internet usage as an adjunct to their fixed access offering. This is also a natural progression for those who have installed WiMAX for fixed access.

What is WiMAX?

WiMAX- Worldwide Interoperability for Microwave Access

WiMAX has become a hotspot for worldwide telecom operators and manufacturers as mobile communication and internet technology has progressed. WiMAX promises to provide the Internet to every corner of the globe while also connecting the "last mile" of broadband wireless connectivity. WiMAX is a wireless internet service that is designed to span a vast geographic region and serve a big number of users at the same time.

Because network connections can be easily maintained while on the road, WiMAX equipped mobile devices have become quite popular. WiMAX uses sophisticated encryption technology to provide strong user authentication, access control, data privacy, and data integrity in network security which is ensured by security standards such as WPA3, WPA2 etc. WiMAX technology is the only solution for isolated locations where e-learning distributed platforms need to be used.

WiMAX is a BWA-MAN (Broadband Wireless Access Metropolitan Area Network) technology based on the IEEE 802.16 standard, commonly known as the IEEE Wireless MAN standard. Its main goal is to deliver a broadband wireless access solution that can be interoperated efficiently in a multi-manufacturer environment with "one-point to multi-point" connectivity in a metropolitan area network.

Architecture of WiMax

MS connected to BS via air interface, BS mainly provide air interface to MS and also participate in Micro Mobility Management which provide handoff, key management, session management, DHCP etc.

ASN Gateway

The primary function of this model is paging. Paging of all the devices, which are there in WiMax and caching of subscriber mobile admission criteria.

IP Network

They consist of all the lists of IP addresses that are there.

Core Network

User authentication, roaming service, network administration, and providing interface to other networks are all handled by the WiMAX core network. Its network administration system monitors and controls all base and subscriber stations in the network, and provide functions such as inquiry, condition monitoring, software download, and system parameter adjustment. The WiMAX system is typically connected to an IP network via a standard switching network, the Internet, or other networks. The WiMAX system serves as a link between the IP network and the base stations. These IP networks, however, are not covered by the WiMAX system.

Access Network

The base station connects the subscriber station and the core network. It often employs a sector/beam antenna or an umbrella antenna, which allows for flexible sub-channel organisation and configuration, as well as network improvements and expansion dependent on customer needs. The subscriber station is a type of base station that acts as a repeater between the base station and the user terminal's equipment. It usually makes use of a roof-mounted beam antenna. The signal is modulated in the dynamic 21 adaptive modulation mode between the base station and the subscriber station. MS primarily refers to the mobile WiMAX terminals and handheld devices that enable mobile WiMAX users to connect to the internet wirelessly. MS connects to BS through air interface; BS primarily provides air interface to MS, but also participates in Micro-Mobility Management, which includes handoff, key management, session management, and DHCP, among other functions.

Connectivity Service Network (CSN)

The CSN connects to the Internet, the Active Server Pages (ASP), other public networks, and business networks. The NSP owns the CSN, which contains AAA servers that support device, user, and specialized service authentication. The CSN also manages QoS and security policies on a per-user basis. The CSN is also in charge of IP address management, roaming support between multiple NSPs, ASN location management, and ASN mobility and roaming.

Base Station

The base station connects the subscriber station and the core network. It often employs a sector/beam antenna or an umbrella antenna, which allows for flexible sub-channel organisation and configuration, as well as network improvements and expansion dependent on customer needs.

User Terminal Equipment

The WiMAX system establishes a connection between the user terminal equipment and the base station, as well as providing terminal equipment access. The user terminal equipment, on the other hand, is not part of the WiMAX system.

WiMAX is now found in a variety of devices, including USB dongles, Wi-Fi devices, computers, and mobile phones. Manufacturers such as Vecima Networks, Alvarion, Airspan, ZyXEL, Huawei, and Motorola offer WiMAX gateway equipment.

Patent Analysis - WiMax

Top 10 Players

There are 82,302 patent families for WiMAX in telecommunications technology domain, and these are the top five companies with the most patents (as shown in the above graph).

LG Electronics, a South Korean company with 10,711 patent families associated with WiMAX, has taken the number one slot on the list. Following that, Qualcomm, an American company specializing in semiconductors, software, and services related to wireless technology, came in second on the list with 8,363 patents related to WiMAX Technology. Huawei, a Chinese company, is in third place, with 3,448 WiMAX-related patents under its belt.

Ericsson had gained fourth place on the list with 3,326 patents affiliated with its name. NTT Docomo is now ranked fifth on the list, with 2,441 patents to its name.

Patents by Country

The United States is the number one on the list, with 39,073 patent families, having gained more patents related to WiMAX technology than any other country. Europe has secured second position on the list with a total of 23,600 patents. China is ranked third on the list, with 22,764 patents related to WiMAX technology.


Almost half of the countries believe that broadband wireless access is best suited to emerging countries to speed up the deployment of NGN. In an all-IP network, Next Generation Network (NGN) ensures Quality of Service (QoS). It was also proposed that the best method to exploit existing mobile technologies for network transformation is for countries to use IP-compliant wireless technologies like WiMAX in their mobile networks as a technology mix. WiMAX is still alive and well, however it is being overshadowed by LTE now. It's a terrific wireless technology that's carved out its niche. As the Internet of Things (IoT) evolves, it has the potential to become a viable alternative technology. In any case, it's worth contemplating. Unlike IEEE 802.22, another OFDM-based wireless technology, it has a promising future.